PALO 976. Introduction to Clinical Pathology - St. Joseph. 4-6 Hours.

This elective serves to enhance the student's awareness of the role of the clinical laboratory in patient management. At the end of the elective, the student will be able to: 1) Describe the general methodology, interpretation and clinical implication of commonly ordered laboratory tests, 2) Suggest a planned approach to laboratory test, when given a patient's problem. An effort will be made to tailor the elective experience to the needs and interests of the individual student. If no specific interests are identified, a general elective will be arranged consisting of short rotations in the several clinical laboratory sections under the tutelage of supervisors, instructors, and pathologists. In each section, the student will observe testing procedures and may perform selected analyses at the discretion of the supervisor. Details of methodology will not be stressed, rather the emphasis will be on general principles, sampling, and interpretation. The student will attend daily departmental gross anatomic pathology conferences and didactic presentations in both anatomic and clinical pathology. The student will be encouraged, but not required to attend extra departmental conferences, such as the daily family practice noon conference. (Observation and participation in autopsies is also optional, but encouraged. The student may choose to spend time in surgical pathology or cytopathology.) The student will be required to make a formal presentation during the last week of the elective. This may consist of a case presentation with discussion of pertinent laboratory findings or the student may elect to present an analysis of a particular laboratory testing procedure, theory, or problem. Evaluation will be based upon the student's knowledge, acquisition, interest, and participation. Prerequisite: Medical Basic Sciences. CLN.

PALO 977. Laboratory Medicine. 4 Hours.

Several options are offered to the student within the Department of Laboratories as follows: 1) A general survey of Laboratory Medicine, including opportunities to view and assist in autopsies, a study of surgical pathology, some exposure to interpretation of immunoelectrophoretic studies, bone marrows, and other laboratory parameters of interest to medical students. 2) More selective and deeper evaluations such as the entire time in anatomic pathology including autopsy and surgical pathology. 3) Programmed courses of experience in chemistry, hematology, or microbiology. It is anticipated that the student will make preliminary contact with a member of the department indicating his or her interest and type of program he or she would like to be exposed to. The student will have the opportunity to attend the morning and afternoon conferences offered daily by the department together with the noon conferences offered by the general medical staff. It is hoped that the experience will be a pleasant and informative one and the student, as a possible pathology resident, will have the opportunity to survey the general field of pathology in a large institution primarily devoted to service and developmental pathology. Students are evaluated by the pathologist or medical technologist in the area which they are working and a report of the student's performance is submitted to the Medical School. Prerequisite: Medical Basic Sciences. CLN.

PALO 978. Introduction to Surgical Pathology. 4-6 Hours.

The student will understand and be able to describe orally, the role of the surgical pathologist in the diagnosis and treatment of common disorders, including: 1) breast masses, 2) suspicious mammographic lesions, 3) mass lesions of the lung, 4) enlarged lymph nodes, and 5) thyroid nodules. Differential diagnosis will be discussed. Using microscopic slides, the student will correctly identify major common surgical lesions of the breast, lung, lymph nodes, thyroid and colon. The student will describe how an intraoperative consultation is conducted, including the frozen section evaluation of resected tissue. The student will be assigned to work with a particular surgical pathologist in two-day blocks. On day 1 the student and pathologist will be in the operating room, performing intraoperative consultations, frozen sections and dissecting tissues removed at surgery. On day 2 they will examine the microscopic slides from selected cases received on the previous day. Depending upon the individual student's areas of major interest, he/she will accompany pathologists who perform fine needle aspiration biopsies and assist in their evaluation. The student will attend departmental conferences. Students will be evaluated according to the objectives above. Prerequisite: SGRY 975 or OBGN 975. CLN.

PALO 979. Introduction to Clinical Pathology - Wesley. 4 Hours.

Given a description of history and physical findings, the student will be able to select from a panel of tests those which, in the opinion of the faculty, would be most suitable for diagnosis management. The student will list no less than 5 legitimate reasons for performing laboratory tests and will discuss each of these using specific examples. The student will list not less than 4 conceptual definitions of "normal" and discuss the implications of each using specific examples. The student, using his/her understanding of the statistical nature of laboratory data, will discuss concepts of accuracy, precision, errors and clinical significance in 5 common laboratory tests of the student's choice. An effort will be made to tailor the elective experiences to the needs and interests of the individual student. In general, students will rotate through most areas of the clinical laboratory, and will gain experience in specimen collections, processing, test methodologies, and clinical interpretation. Students will report to their assigned areas by 7:30 a.m. and carry out assigned tasks then meet a member of the faculty in the late afternoon to go over the day's work and to discuss the clinical correlation of the tests reviewed that day. Students will attend the Departmental Teaching Conferences. Attendance at other clinical conferences, usually held at noon, is encouraged, but not required. Students will attend Medicine Morning Report with the Staff Pathologist each day at 8:00 a.m. Students will make one presentation at a Clinical Pathology Conference during their last week of rotation which may consist of a short lecture and a particular test or a patient presentation. The quality of the presentation will be evaluated and will form 50% of the grade. The other 50% will be determined from questions asked at the end of the presentation as determined by the objective given above. Prerequisite: INMD 975 or SGRY 975 or PDRC 975 or OBGN 975. CLN.

PALO 980. Introduction to Forensic Pathology. 2-4 Hours.

The student will understand and be able to describe orally, the basic principles of the medicolegal autopsy through observation of postmortem dissections and assisting the forensic pathologist. The student will learn the principles of death scene investigation. The student will appreciate the importance of toxicology in the correct determination of cause and manner of death through the interpretation of toxicology reports and consultations with the chief forensic toxicologist. The student will understand the role of physical evidence collected at the scene and autopsy as it pertains to the determination of cause and manner of death. The student will be assigned to the autopsy suite and will be supervised by the on-duty designated forensic pathologist. As time permits the student will accompany the coroner or deputy coroner to court to observe trial testimony. Students will be evaluated according to the objectives listed above. Prerequisite: Medical basic sciences. CLN.