Department of Philosophy
Why study philosophy?
In philosophy we ask big, important questions. While asking such questions is easy, answering them is difficult. Because these questions are often abstract and vague, it is necessary to use precise reasoning and analysis to clarify what exactly it is we are asking. Only then can we attempt to develop answers. For example:
- What is the morally right thing to do?
- What is the nature of the mind?
- When can we know something, rather than merely believing it?
- Do the sciences exhaust what can be known about the natural world?
- What is justice?
- What assumptions do we make when we try to answer questions like these?
- Plus many, many others...
In studying philosophy, you will learn what others have thought about life's big questions. You will also learn to challenge those views, and to develop your own thoughts in a precise, logical manner. Philosophy will help you develop critical thinking skills, enabling you to analyze the underlying logic and assumptions in arguments about a variety of topics. This is a skill that generalizes to virtually every area of life.
The department offers a range of courses in philosophy, both in the main systematic divisions of the subject and in its major historical periods. Philosophy courses are often suitable not only for majors but also for students whose main interests lie in other areas. Many philosophy courses satisfy requirements in other degree programs in the College and professional schools.
Argument and Reason Requirement
Interdisciplinary Course Work
The department offers courses in applied ethics, ethics, feminism, logic, and the philosophy of science to fit the needs and interests of nonmajors. Many of these may be taken without prerequisites. The nonmajor may wish to supplement work in other fields or schools with a series of related courses in philosophy. Some suggested programs to be supplemented with this type of interdisciplinary course work are business, prelaw, premedicine, and engineering; classics, art history, and literature; and natural sciences and mathematics. Lists of philosophy courses relating to these areas are available. Consult the director of undergraduate studies.
The department offers graduate programs in philosophy leading to M.A. and Ph.D. degrees. With the School of Law, the department also offers a joint program in law and philosophy leading to a J.D./M.A. Our faculty is dynamic, professionally active, and committed to excellence in scholarship and teaching. Excellent facilities, strong library holdings, and a faculty dedicated to both teaching and research assure students of a challenging and professional graduate preparation.
The department does its best to provide funding in the form of Graduate Teaching Assistantship (GTA) appointments to all incoming graduate students. GTA appointments are awarded for the academic year (9 months) and come with a competitive salary, a 100% tuition waiver, and qualify the student for University-subsidized group health insurance. Appointments are guaranteed, based on funding availability and performance, for up to 3 years for M.A. students and 6 years for students who receive both an M.A. and a Ph.D. at The University of Kansas. GTAs in the department receive thorough training, close mentoring, and the opportunity to teach courses in a variety of fields within philosophy, providing them with a strong base of teaching experience upon entering the job market.
There are also university fellowships for truly outstanding students. Visit the Graduate Studies website for information about funding opportunities for KU graduate students.
Graduate Non-Degree Seeking Status
Students who are interested in enrolling in graduate-level coursework in the Department of Philosophy without formal admission to a graduate program at KU are encouraged to apply for graduate non-degree seeking student status. See the department’s webpage for further details.
An introductory examination, based primarily on writings of major philosophers, of such central philosophical problems as religious belief, the mind and its place in nature, freedom and determinism, morality, and the nature and kinds of human knowledge.
An introductory examination, based primarily on writings of major philosophers, of such central philosophical problems as religious belief, the mind and its place in nature, freedom and determinism, morality, and the nature and kinds of human knowledge. Prerequisite: Open only to students in the University Honors Program or by consent of department.
An introduction to the theory and practice of logical analysis. Special emphasis is placed upon the logical appraisal of everyday arguments.
This course provides an introduction to philosophy, with a focus on the traditional philosophical practice of oral communication and argument. Through exploration of perennial philosophical questions (e.g., Are there different ways of knowing? What makes for a good life? Could computers have minds? Are we obligated to obey the law? What makes you the same person over time?), students develop their ability to participate in various forms of philosophical communication. In this course, students have the opportunity to teach course material to peers, engage in class debates over philosophical issues, and craft short presentations exploring a facet of the course topic.
An introductory study of the nature of morality and of philosophical bases for the assessment of actions, agents, and institutions. Special emphasis will be placed upon the views of such important philosophers as Aristotle, Hume, Kant, and Mill. Some attention will be paid to applications of moral theory to practice.
An introductory study of the nature of morality and of philosophical bases for the assessment of actions, agents, and institutions. Special emphasis will be placed upon the views of such important philosophers as Aristotle, Hume, Kant, and Mill. Some attention will be paid to applications of moral theory to practice. Prerequisite: Open only to students in the University Honors Program or by consent of department.
This course introduces central questions about the meaning of life. The question itself may be taken in a number of ways: Why is there a universe that contains life? What is the nature or purpose of human being and persons? What is the point of our existence? Is it possible to lead a meaningful life? This course examines these and other questions relating to meaning in life, such as our place in the physical universe, the possibility and significance of God's existence, the nature of human persons (including the relation between, and nature of, body, mind, and consciousness), what death tells us about the nature of life and whether it is appropriate to fear death, the nature of 'the good life' (including the import for 'the good life' of knowledge, success, pleasure, health, friendship, love, in both our physical and mental life, etc.), the nature of value and its relation to meaning in life, and our obligations to other beings.
A limited-enrollment, seminar course for first-time freshmen, addressing current issues in Philosophy. Course is designed to meet the critical thinking learning outcome of the KU Core. First-Year Seminar topics are coordinated and approved by the Office of First-Year Experience. Prerequisite: First-time freshman status.
An introductory study, based primarily on classic philosophical texts, of such central issues as the justification of governmental authority, the social sources of power, the nature of a just distribution of social resources, competing conceptions of human nature, and the proper limits of governmental interference with individual liberty.
An introductory study, based primarily on classic philosophical texts, of such central issues as the justification of governmental authority, the social sources of power, the nature of a just distribution of social resources, competing conceptions of human nature, and the proper limits of governmental interference with individual liberty. Prerequisite: Open only to students in the University Honors Program or by consent of department.
This course is designed for the study of special topics in Philosophy. Coursework must be arranged through the Office of KU Study Abroad. May be repeated for credit if content varies.
Many of the things we need to think through involve uncertainty. There may be a chance that it will rain, that a flight will get canceled, that a car accident will occur, or that a team will win. Should you buy a $10 parking pass if you know there's a 5% chance you will get a $100 fine if you don't buy one? This course will teach you how to think through uncertainty and probability, using philosophical and mathematical techniques, logic, and critical thinking. This course presupposes knowledge of pre-algebra and basic high school algebra.
A number of puzzles and paradoxes surround the nature and (dis)value of death. These include: is death a bad thing? If so, when is it a bad thing? Is it rational to fear death? If so, is it rational to regret that we were not born earlier? What is death? Can a person's death have a valuable meaning? Readings for this course will be taken from Epicurus, Derek Parfit, Fred Feldman, and many others.
This course introduces students to rigorous philosophic debates about some gripping existential questions surrounding the value of religion with God, a religion without God (focusing on Buddhism), and atheism. We will explore arguments for opposing answers regarding topics such as: whether atheism threatens the value of life; differences in how the self is viewed in Western and Eastern religions; and differences in how morality is grounded in these different traditions. We will examine the compatibility of atheism with Buddhism, and of Buddhism with belief in God. (Same as REL 306.) Prerequisite: A 100-level Philosophy course or permission of instructor.
An introduction to the theory and practice of elementary symbolic logic. Special emphasis will be placed upon the logical analysis of mathematical proof and upon a proof of the consistency of elementary logic.
A philosophical analysis of theoretical and ethical issues that arise in the practice of the life sciences. Discusses the conceptual foundation of the life sciences--evolutionary theory and genetics. Critically explores the use of statistical and non-human-animal models. Examines ethical issues including problems that arise in human and other animal experimentation, obligations to the environment, proper use of patents, and conflicts in professional duties.
The philosophy of psychology is a relatively new field of inquiry in philosophy and so the question of what the philosophy of psychology is remains an open question. In this course, we will understand the philosophy of psychology in two ways. First, it is the study of the nature of psychology and the various capacities and mechanisms that make cognition possible. We will consider whether there is a unique psychological level of explanation or whether psychology ultimately reduces to the brain. We will also explore various philosophical puzzles raised by consideration of psychological abilities like memory, attention, and emotion. Second, philosophy of psychology is a subfield of philosophy of science, where we examine a particular science-here, experimental psychology-as a way to explore broader questions about what science is, how science explains phenomena, and how values intersect with its investigations. All of this makes it an exciting time to study the philosophy of psychology-as students in this course, student's interests will play a role in selecting topics and shaping the direction of our inquiry. (Same as PSYC 323.)
Computers are everywhere, and they seem to be getting increasingly intelligent. However, it is surprisingly difficult to say what exactly a computer is, and what it means for one to be intelligent. In this course, we will examine arguments about the nature of computation, including how computation is used in science, whether computers and robots could really have minds (or could only just simulate having a mind), and whether the brain might literally be a computer. Prerequisite: An introductory course in philosophy or permission of instructor.
This is a course in social epistemology. It explores how social phenomena within communities and between individuals bear on issues of belief, justification, and knowledge. Topics may include philosophical examinations of lies, BS (in the technical sense of Frankfurt and others), conspiracy theories, propaganda, disagreement, testimony, expertise, trust, group belief, and epistemic injustice.
This course is on social groups, which include teams and clubs as well as gender and racial groups. Topics to be covered might include whether a group exists, in addition to its members, and if so what kind of thing it is; whether group membership in various cases is a matter of members sharing a group identity rather than having certain biological features in common or occupying a common social position; and what it is for someone to have a certain group identity in the first place. Additional topics to be covered might include whether there are different kinds of groups; whether a group can do things, and be responsible for doing things, that none of its members does individually; and whether there are ways in which we should, or shouldn't, talk about a group and its members. Groups and identities to be discussed might include those relating to gender, race, sexual orientation, and disability.
This course will examine and evaluate the work of some of the women philosophers in the history of philosophy. The course will focus on a variety of philosophical issues, including social and political issues, such as women's equality and education and political rule; metaphysical issues, such as mind-body dualism, vitalism, and the existence of God; and issues concerning the relationship between philosophy, science, and religion.
This course will consider, from a philosophical perspective, some of the problems in religion which arise in the development of "Natural Theology" broadly conceived. (Same as REL 380.)
This course offers a survey of competing ethical frameworks and applies them to issues in governmental policy and political activity. Topics may include the duties and virtues of citizenship, conflict of interest, public health policy, immigration, corruption, the value of patriotism, and conflicts between private and public morality. This course leaves aside debates about what sort of political framework to adopt and focuses on moral issues that matter from most any political perspective.
After a brief survey of techniques of moral argument and analysis, particular moral issues related to business will be discussed. These will include such topics as advertising, conflict of interest, personal and corporate responsibility, codes of conduct, private property, strikes, just wage, and the tension between moral ideals and business pressures.
This course is a philosophical investigation of the nature and value of sports. Provides students with an overview of ethical theory and considers principled answers to questions about the values of sports and about how those values can be sustained or demeaned. Students debate a variety of live controversies in sports today such as drugs, cheating, sexism, racism, the role of sports in educational institutions, Title IX, commercialization, and violence.
This course is a philosophical investigation of the nature and ethical dimensions of warfare and the use of force. It provides students with an overview of ethical theory and considers answers to questions about the principles of just war theory, the values served by these principles, and about how those values can be sustained or demeaned. Students debate a variety of live controversies in warfare today such as just causes for war, when threats ought to be deemed imminent, collateral damage and the nature of non-civilians on the battlefield, and terrorism.
After a brief survey of techniques of moral argument and analysis, particular moral issues related to medicine will be discussed. The justification and limits of some rules of professional conduct that deal with such matters as confidentiality, truth-telling, and protection of medical research subjects will be considered. Issues relating to death and dying in medicine such as abortion, euthanasia, and the refusal of life-saving medical therapy also will be discussed.
After surveying the nature of ethics and morality and learning some standard techniques of moral argumentation, we shall examine such topics as: property and ownership rights in computer programs and software; privacy in computer entry and records; responsibility for computer use and failure; the "big brother" syndrome made possible by extensive personal data banks; censorship and the world-wide web; computer illiteracy and social displacement; and ethical limits to computer research.
After a brief survey of techniques of moral argument and analysis, particular moral issues related to the environment will be discussed. These will include such topics (one of which may be dealt with in depth) as animal rights, rights of future generations, wilderness preservation, population control, endangered species, and economics and public policy. Prerequisite: EVRN 148 or consent of instructor.
An examination of topics of philosophical interest that are important in the feminist movement such as the nature of sexism, the concept of sexual equality, the ethics of sexual behavior, the nature of love, feminist analyses of the value of marriage and family, the ethics of abortion, and justifications for preferential treatment of women. (Same as WGSS 381.)
A survey of topics of philosophical interest as they appear in literature, film, and the writings of philosophers. We will consider what these arts can contribute to the practice of philosophy and how philosophy might guide our engagement with literature and film.
A survey of the thought of the principal philosophers of ancient Greece, with emphasis on the pre-Socratics, Plato, and Aristotle.
A survey of the writings of such principal philosophers of the modern period as Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Kant.
An introduction to the principal figures in the philosophical tradition that forms the background to contemporary investigations in analytic philosophy of language. Particular attention will be paid to Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein, and Quine. Prerequisite: PHIL 310 or equivalent, or PHIL 310 may be taken concurrently.
Examines the data and methodologies of the disciplines that comprise Cognitive Science, an inter-disciplinary approach to studying the mind and brain. Topics may include: consciousness, artificial intelligence, linguistics, education and instruction, neural networks, philosophy, psychology, anthropology, evolutionary theory, cognitive neuroscience, human-computer interaction, and robotics. (Same as LING 418, PSYC 418, and SPLH 418.) Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.
This course is required, in addition to regular major requirements, of those students wishing to work for departmental honors in Philosophy. Students wishing to enroll should first speak with the departmental adviser for majors. Prerequisite: Open to senior majors in Philosophy by consent of instructor.
(Topic, instructor, and specific prerequisite to be announced in Schedule of Classes.) A study of particular philosophical problems or thinkers not covered by other courses. The course may be offered concurrently by different instructors under different subtitles, and may, with the consent of the chair, be taken more than once if content varies.
A discussion of philosophical issues such as the relation between love, autonomy, and friendship; heterosexual and homosexual relationships; marriage and adultery; rape and sexual harassment; prostitution; and pornography.
A survey of the principal modes of Chinese thought from their origins through the imperial period. Not open to students with credit in EALC 132. (Same as EALC 642 and HUM 524.) Prerequisite: Eastern civilization course or a course in Asian history or a distribution course in philosophy.
A study of the doctrines of Greek philosophy before Plato. Emphasis on the Pre-Socratic philosophers, with some attention paid to the Sophists and the Hippocratic corpus. (Same as GRK 508.) Prerequisite: PHIL 384, or GRK 301, or GRK 302, or GRK 303, or GRK 310, or GRK 312, or permission of instructor.
This course surveys the central concepts, issues and debates surrounding the philosophy of economics. The course is divided into three parts. The first is focused on the nature of economic science, whether it can be separated from value judgments, along with the foundational and methodological issues that arise in economics. The second part of the course provides a survey of several central topics in the philosophy of economics including rational choice theory, game theory, social choice theory, behavioral and neuroeconomics. The third part concerns welfare economics (broadly understood), including the aims of welfare economics, the nature of well-being, the possibility of interpersonal utility comparisons, and the aims of economic institutional design. At the end of this course, students should have knowledge and understanding of central methodological and substantive debates regarding the nature of economic theories. This course should also enhance students' ability to think critically and analytically about the nature of economic theories and the key concepts in the philosophy of economics, write clearly and cogently about philosophical issues that arise in economic, incorporate the ideas, theories and techniques that arise in both philosophy and economics to understand social and economic issues. (Same as ECON 551.) Prerequisite: An introductory course in philosophy or economics, or permission of instructor.
An examination of important representative theories of the justness of an economic system, with particular attention paid to such institutions as private property, a market economy, means and relationships of production, and principles of distribution to individuals. The theorists under consideration include Locke, Adam Smith, Marx and Engels, contemporary utilitarians, Rawls, and Nozick. Prerequisite: A course in ethics or an introductory course in economics or in business.
A survey of the major works of Immanuel Kant, with attention to his critical method and its application to issues in theoretical philosophy, practical philosophy, aesthetics, or the philosophy of history. Prerequisite: PHIL 386.
The development of philosophy in the 17th century. Special attention will be paid to such major figures as Descartes, Malebranche, Spinoza, Leibniz, Elisabeth of Bohemia, Cavendish, Conway, Astell, Hobbes, and Locke. Prerequisite: PHIL 386 or consent of instructor.
The development of philosophy in the 18th century. Special attention will be paid to such major figures as Hutcheson, Butler, Berkeley, Mandeville, Hume, Smith, Kant, Rousseau, Bentham, Wolstonecraft and Shepherd. Prerequisite: PHIL 386 or consent of instructor.
The development of philosophy in the 19th century. Special attention will be paid to such major figures as Hegel, Kierkegaard, Marx, Nietzsche, and Mill. Prerequisite: PHIL 386 or permission of instructor.
A study of the main themes and leading philosophers of the existentialist movement. Prerequisite: Two courses in philosophy.
A study of the main themes and leading philosophers of the phenomenological movement. Prerequisite: PHIL 386.
A study of selected topics in 20th century European philosophy, such as hermeneutics, critical theory, and poststructuralism. Figures to be studied could include Heidegger, Gadamer, Adorno, Habermas, and Foucault. Prerequisite: PHIL 386.
Individual reading on topics not covered in course work. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.
A survey of the major works of Plato, with attention both to Plato's distinctive arguments and positions in the major areas of philosophy and to the distinctive literary form in which Plato presents his thinking. Prerequisite: PHIL 384.
A survey of the major works of Aristotle, with the aim of understanding Aristotle's distinctive formulations of central philosophical questions, the arguments he presents for his answers to those questions, and the systematic interconnections between his positions in the different areas of philosophy. Prerequisite: PHIL 384.
Survey of Stoicism, Epicureanism, and Scepticism from their beginnings through the second century AD. Prerequisite: PHIL 384 and another course in philosophy.
This course is a workshop in any of a variety of topics in symbolic logic of special importance to contemporary analytic philosophy, such as modal logic, tense logic, axiomatic set theory, Goedel's theorems, model theory, etc. May be repeated for credit as topics vary. Prerequisite: PHIL 310.
An examination of conceptual and foundational issues in the natural sciences. Topics may include the methodology of science (the nature and status of laws, the precise way in which experiment contributes to theory) and puzzles concerning the content of science (the status of space and time, the problematic nature of quantum mechanics). Prerequisite: PHIL 310 or PHIL 610, or permission of instructor.
A critical examination of the methods, concepts, and practices of the social sciences. Topics to be considered may include: theories of explanation, methodological individualism vs. holism, objectivity, the role of rationality, myth and the unconscious in the explanation of behavior, and the value neutrality of science. Prerequisite: One previous course in philosophy, or permission of instructor.
An examination of varying conceptions of the role and status of mathematical arguments. Topics may include realism/anti-realism, the consequences of Goedel's Incompleteness Theorems, the role of mathematics in the sciences, and an examination of such historical thinkers as Plato, Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein, Goedel, and Hilbert. Prerequisite: PHIL 310 or PHIL 610, or permission of instructor.
An examination of the nature of language using the methods of analytic philosophy. Topics may include meaning, truth, reference, language and thought, and the nature of linguistic rules. Prerequisite: PHIL 388 or permission of instructor.
An examination of some of the central issues in metaphysics. Topics may include causation, the mind-body problem, free will and determinism, modality, natural kinds, the nature of properties, and personal identity. Prerequisite: PHIL 384 and PHIL 386, PHIL 388 (which may be taken concurrently), or permission of instructor.
An examination of the nature of mind using the methods of analytic philosophy. Topics may include consciousness, perception, propositional attitudes, thought and language, action and intention, mind and body, the prospects for scientific psychology, and personal identity. Prerequisite: PHIL 388 or permission of instructor.
A study of some of the central themes and problems in aesthetics, such as the beautiful and the sublime in nature and the arts. Prerequisite: Two courses in philosophy or graduate standing.
This course is an introduction to the philosophical issues surrounding individual decision theory, game theory, and social choice theory. This includes issues of scientific theory selection, the nature of preference, the uses of games to model social interaction, and the ethical and political implications of Arrow's impossibility theorem. Formal techniques of modeling and proof, akin to those used in logic and mathematics, will be used in much of the course. Prerequisite: Two courses in economics, a philosophy course numbered 500 or above, or consent of instructor.
A systematic analysis of the concepts of politics, with reference to representative political theories. Prerequisite: A course in philosophy and a course in political science.
An examination of some major moral philosophers and some important issues in ethical theory since the beginning of the twentieth century. Topics covered typically include intuitionism, emotivism, utilitarianism, virtue ethics, and the relationship between morality and rationality. Prerequisite: PHIL 160 or PHIL 161 or two courses in philosophy.
This course addresses the role (if any) that gender plays in constructing ethical theories. Topics include the impact of culture, affect, and the body on our understanding of gender differences and the importance of these differences for ethics. Prerequisite: PHIL 160 or PHIL 161, or two previous philosophy courses.
An examination of the concept of law and of legal reasoning. In addition, the course may consider such topics as natural law, legal excuses, the relations between law and morality, civil disobedience, civil liberties, the concept of property. Prerequisite: Two courses in philosophy or one course in philosophy and one course in law or consent of instructor.
After a brief survey of techniques of moral argument and analysis especially as they pertain to the moral impermissibility of murder, particular moral and conceptual issues relating to death and dying in medical contexts will be addressed. Topics such as abortion, infanticide, suicide, euthanasia, the definition of death, and the right to refuse life-saving medical therapy will be included. Prerequisite: Two courses in biology or consent of instructor.
After a brief survey of techniques of moral argument and analysis, particular moral issues related to the obligations of health care professionals and the rights of patients will be discussed. These will include such matters as confidentiality, truth-telling, informed consent, the ethics of research on human subjects, psychosurgery, the rights of the mentally ill, and the rights of the mentally retarded. Prerequisite: Two courses in biology or consent of instructor.
Intensive supervised training in and application of the techniques of research. Required of every graduate student seeking an advanced degree in the first or second semester of enrollment. Passing this tutorial constitutes partial fulfillment of the Ph.D. RSRS requirements. Consent of instructor required for repeating the course. Prerequisite: Graduate standing.
This course may be offered by different instructors under different subtitles, and may be taken more than once if the subject matter varies sufficiently. Topic, instructor, and specific prerequisites to be announced in the Schedule of Classes. Prerequisite: 500-600 level course as specified or permission of instructor.
Gottlob Frege was the founder of the analytic movement in philosophy, having done seminal work in logic, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of mathematics. This course will focus on his primary texts as well as his influence on present-day studies. Prerequisite: PHIL 630 or PHIL 638 or permission of instructor.
This course may be offered by different instructors under different subtitles, and may be taken more than once if the subject matter varies sufficiently. Topic, instructor, and specific prerequisite to be announced in Schedule of Classes. Prerequisite: 500-600 level as specified or permission of instructor.
This course may be offered under different subtitles, and may be taken more than once if the subject matter varies sufficiently. Topic and instructor and specific prerequisite to be announced in the Schedule of Classes. Prerequisite: PHIL 620 or PHIL 622 or PHIL 648 or PHIL 650 or permission of instructor.
This course may be offered under different subtitles and may be taken more than once if the subject matter varies sufficiently. Prerequisite: PHIL 638 or permission of instructor.
This course may be offered under different subtitles, and may be taken more than once if the subject matter varies sufficiently. Topic and instructor and specific prerequisite to be announced in the Schedule of Classes. Prerequisite: PHIL 650 or permission of instructor.
This course may be offered under different subtitles, and may be taken more than once if the subject matter varies sufficiently. Topic and instructor and specific prerequisite to be announced in the Schedule of Classes. Prerequisite: PHIL 648 or permission of instructor.
This course may be offered under different subtitles, and may be taken more than once if the subject matter varies sufficiently. Topic and instructor and specific prerequisite to be announced in the Schedule of Classes. Prerequisite: PHIL 654 or permission of instructor.
This course may be offered under different subtitles, and may be taken more than once if the subject matter varies sufficiently. Topic and instructor and specific prerequisite to be announced in the Schedule of Classes. Prerequisite: PHIL 555 or PHIL 666 or PHIL 668 or PHIL 674 or permission of instructor.
Explores various topics at the intersection of law and philosophy. Content varies but may include: What is freedom and what role should government play in a free society? What is equality and what is the best way to achieve it? What is the relationship between law and social justice? What is the source and value of human rights? Should social and economic rights be legally guaranteed? How should government redress historical injustices such as slavery, apartheid, and the Holocaust? Students must complete a substantial seminar paper.
Six hours of credit will be awarded upon completion of the master's thesis, but no more than six hours of credit may be obtained in this course altogether. Graded on a satisfactory progress/limited progress/no progress basis.
Intensive research in philosophy. This course may be taken through individual arrangement, or in connection with small research seminars which are offered occasionally. Students may only enroll for three hours in any given semester. May be repeated if content varies significantly. Prerequisite: Twelve hours of graduate work.
Independent research on any topic that a graduate student and a faculty member shall agree on. It shall result in a tightly focused 20-30 page paper. The student's written work will be repeatedly evaluated over the semester by the director, and the final product must be defended in an oral examination conducted by a three-member faculty committee (including the director). Prerequisite: Students must be admitted to the Ph.D. program and have successfully completed the Ph.D. core courses requirement.
This course may be taken more than once, but not for more than twelve hours of credit in any one semester. Graded on a satisfactory progress/limited progress/no progress basis.